When exporting you can ship either FCL, (full container load) or LCL, (less than a container load) depending on the size of your shipment. Most exporters ship FCL to control the timing of the shipment and guarantee that their cargo will not be contaminated or damaged by other cargo.
The Container Yard (CY) and Container Freight Station (CFS) apply to the manner and the location of the cargo delivery and receipt in a container service. The CY is the delivery (or receipt) of a whole container from (or at) the shipper’s or the forwarder's (or the consignee's) cargo yard or premises. The CFS is the delivery (or receipt) of loose cargo from (or at) the carrier’s container freight station.
ETD: Estimated Time of Departure. Generally used for the date that the ship or plane is due to leave its port of origin and degin its journey.
ETA: Estimated Time of Arrival. Generally used for the date that the ship or plane is due to arrive at its destination port.
POL: Port of Loading (sometimes called Port of Origin). The port at which the goods are loaded onto the vessel. POD: Port of Discharge. The port at which the goods are unloaded from vessel.
Bill of Lading (B/L)
A bill of lading is a legal document between the shipper and carrier; it's a contract, detailing the type, quantity and destination of goods being carried. The bill of lading serves as a receipt of shipment when the goods are delivered at the predetermined destination. And there are different kinds of bills of lading, each type with unique stipulations and conditions.
A Sea Waybill is a transport contract (contract of carriage) - the same as a Bill of Lading. A Sea Waybill, however, is not needed for cargo delivery and is only issued as a cargo receipt. It can either be issued in hard copy format or soft copy format.
Automated Export System (AES)
The Automated Export System (AES) is the system U.S. exporters use to electronically declare their international exports, known as Electronic Export Information (EEI), to the Census Bureau to help compile U.S. export and trade statistics. It is also used by other government agencies for trade enforcement purposes.
Export Power of Attorney (POA)
Export Power of Attorney (POA) is a written authorization that a shipper (consignor) provides to a freight forwarder. The document contains a provision appointing the freight forwarder as an agent to prepare documentations and granting a power of attorney for that purpose.
EXW - ExWorks
This term represents the seller's minimum obligation, since he only has to place the goods at the disposal of the buyer. The buyer must carry out all tasks of export & import clearance. Carriage & insurance is to be arranged by the buyer.
FCA - Free Carrier
This term means that the seller delivers the goods, cleared for export, to the carrier nominated by the buyer at the named place. Seller pays for carriage to the named place.
FOB - Free On Board
This term means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the ship's rail at the named port of shipment. This means the buyer has to bear all costs & risks to the goods from that point. The seller must clear the goods for export. This term can only be used for sea transport. If the parties do not intend to deliver the goods across the ship's rail, the FCA term should be used.
CIF - Cost, Insurance, Freight
The seller delivers when the goods pass the ship's rail in the port of shipment. Seller must pay the cost & freight necessary to bring goods to named port of destination. Risk of loss & damage same as CFR. Seller also has to procure marine insurance against buyer's risk of loss/damage during the carriage. Seller must clear the goods for export. This term can only be used for sea transport.
DDU - Delivered Duty Unpaid
This term means the seller delivers the goods to the buyer, not cleared for import, and not unloaded from arriving means of transport at the named place of destination. The seller bears all costs & risks involved in bringing the goods to the named place other than "duty" (which includes the responsibility for customs formalities & payment of those formalities, duties & taxes) for import into the country of destination. Buyer is responsible for payment of all customs & duties & taxes.
DDP - Delivered Duty Paid
This term represents maximum obligation to the seller. This term should not be used if the seller is unable to directly or indirectly to obtain the import license. The terms means the same as the DDU term with the exception that the seller also will bear all costs & risks of carrying out customs formalities including the payment of duties, taxes & customs fees.